Covalent Bonding and Hybridization

Orbital is the region of an atom where it is most likely to find an electron.

The orbital shows the shape of the atom according to the energetic sublevel.

sublevel s

one orbital s


sublevel p

three orbitals p

(-1) (0) (+1)

sublevel d

five orbitals d

(-2) (-1) (0) (+1) (+2)

sublevel f

seven orbitals f

(-3) (-2) (-1) (0) (+1) (+2) (+3)

See the shape of each orbital:

s - has the spherical shape

P - has the shape of dumbbells

The orbitals d and f They also have the shape of dumbbells, but are more elongated.

According to Pauli Exclusion Principle, an orbital only holds two electrons at a time.

Spin It is the direction of the electron's rotational motion about its own axis.

Spin values ​​are conventional and follow clockwise and counterclockwise directions.

For clockwise use
For counterclockwise use